Crop Improvement and Plant Hormones

Crop Improvement involves in the engineering of plants done for the benefit of humanity. It can be achieved by three steps- Selection, Isolation and Breeding. By selecting and isolating plants for cultivation, the early farmers were influencing which plants would cross-pollinate. Breeding was done in such a way that two plants are selected, and they are crossed to produce offspring having the desired traits of both parents. Gene editing is the insertion, deletion or replacement of DNA at a specific site in the genome of an organism or cell which can be done with the help of molecular scissors. Genetically Modified crops have been developed to resist abiotic stresses, such as extreme temperature, drought or salinity, and biotic stresses, such as pathogens, insects etc. and to increase the crop yield.

Plant Hormones are chemical messengers that are made in one place in the plant body and deliver their message in a totally different place in the plant body. There are many hormones such as Auxin, Gibberellin, Cytokinin, Ethylene and Abscisic Acid by which each hormone is responsible for each function in plants. The drought signaling in plants is done by Abscisic acid during the time when there is stress on water availability. These hormones found only in small concentration but plays a vital role in plant growth, metabolism, aging etc. and study of these hormones are necessary to know well about plants.